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Kamis, 14 Februari 2013 - 10:57:46 WIB
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Diposting oleh : ahmad rizal abidin
Kategori: Jurusan Biologi - Dibaca - : 205827 kali

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

AZWIR ANHAR

FACULTY OF MATHEMATIC AND NATURAL SCIENCE

PADANG STATE UNIVERSITY

2013

 

Download Lengkap Bahan Ajar Plant Physiology

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS.. i

I.        SOIL.. 1

A.  Soil Texture. 2

B.  Soil Textural Classes. 3

1.      Sandy soil 5

2.      Clay soils. 6

3.      Loam soils. 6

C.  Determination of soil textural classes. 7

D.  Soil Structure. 7

1.      Types of soil structure. 8

a.  Spheroidal 8

b.  Platy or plate like structure. 8

c.  Prism like structure. 8

d.  Block like structure. 9

2.      Soil structural classes. 9

3.      Soil structure grades. 9

4.      Genesis of granular soil structure. 9

a.  Proper use of tillage implements. 10

b.  Addition of soil amendments and organic manures. 10

c.  Growing suitable crops and keys. 10

II.       MINERAL DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS.. 12

A.  Chemical test for mineral deficiencies. 13

B.  Factors that effect plant deficiency symptoms. 14

C.  Symptoms. 16

1.      Nitrogen (N). 18

2.      Phosphorus (P). 18

3.      Potassium (K). 19

4.      Chloride (Cl). 19

5.      Magnesium (Mg). 20

6.      Molybdenum (Mo). 20

7.      Sulfur (S). 20

8.      Boron (B). 20

9.      Iron (Fe). 21

10.   Zinc (Zn). 21

11.   Calcium (Ca). 22

12.   Copper (Cu). 22

13.   Manganese (Mn). 22

14.   Nickel (Ni). 22

15.   Micronutrients. 23

III.     MINERAL TRANSPORT.. 26

A.  Passive Transport. 26

B.  Active Transport. 28

1.      The membrane. 28

2.      Relation among ATPases, Ion Pumps, and Active. 29

C.  Absorption Routes. 30

D.  Specialized Absorptive Structures. 30

E.   Function of Minerals to The Plants. 32

1.      Classification of plant mineral nutrients according to biochemical function. 33

a.  Group 1 Nutrients that are part of carbon compounds. 33

b.  Group 2 Nutrients that are important in energy storage or structural integrity. 33

c.  Group 3 Nutrients that remain in ionic form.. 33

d.  Group 4 Nutrients that are involved in redox reactions. 34

2.      Classification based on requirements in plants. 34

a.  Macronutrients. 34

b.  Micronutrients. 36

3.      Beneficial Elements. 37

IV.     ENZYME.. 38

A.  Role of Enzyme in plant. 38

B.  Property of Enzyme. 40

C.  Mechanism of enzyme action. 41

1.      Reaction Mechanism.. 41

2.      Molecular Geometry. 42

3.      Energy Changes. 43

D.  Factor influencing rate of enzyme reaction. 44

1.      Temperature. 44

2.      pH.. 45

3.      Enzyme concentration. 46

4.      Substrate concentration. 46

5.      Covalent modification. 47

6.      Inhibitors. 47

7.      Feedback Inhibition (Allosteric Effectors). 48

V.       PHOTOSYNTHESIS.. 51

A.  Photosynthesis Pygment. 51

1.      Components of the Photosynthesis Process. 52

a.  Chloroplasts. 52

b.  Light. 52

B.  Photolysis. 54

1.      Photosynthesis and oxygen. 55

2.      Photosynthesis and nutrients. 55

3.      Photosynthesis and side products. 56

4.      Photosynthesis and the environment. 56

5.      The Stages of Photosynthesis. 57

6.      The Light Phase. 58

C.  Transfer Electron. 59

1.      The Formation of Photosystem I and NADPH.. 59

2.      Water – Photosystem II. 60

VI.     CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.. 64

A.  The C3 Metabolism.. 64

B.  The C4 Metabolism.. 65

1.      The C4 Cycle. 65

2.      The C4 Dicarboxylic Acid Pathway: Some Species Fix CO2 Differently. 68

C.  CAM Metabolism.. 73

VII.    FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS.. 77

A.  Adaptations to Sun and Shade: 79

B.  Light effects in a Plant Canopy. 81

C.  Availability of CO2 : 81

D.  Leaf Age. 83

E.   Photosynthetic Rates, Efficiencies and Crop Production. 84

F.   Temperature. 85

G.  Oxygen. 85

VIII.                                                                                                                         RESPIRATION.. 87

A.  That Use of Energy. 88

B.  Respiration and Enzymes. 88

C.  Evidances of Respiration. 89

D.  Glycolysis. 89

E.   Important Facts about Glycolysis: 91

1.      Glucose Produces Two Pyruvic Acid Molecules: 92

2.      ATP Is Initially Required: 92

3.      ATP is Produced: 92

4.      Fate of NADH + H+: 93

F.   Creb Cycle. 95

G.  Importance of CTA Cycle: 98

IX.     FACTORS AFFECTING THE RESPIRATION RATE.. 100

A.  Substrate Availability. 101

B.  Available Oxygen. 102

C.  Available Carbon dioxide. 104

D.  Type and Age of Plant. 105

E.   Temperature. 107

F.   Water. 108

G.  Salt. 108

H.  Wounding and Mechanical Stimulus. 108

X.       PLANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT.. 110

A.  Concept Of Growth And Development. 110

1.      Growth. 110

2.      Development. 111

B.  Steps in Cell Growth and Developmnent. 113

C.  Curve of Plant Growth. 113

D.  Control of Growth and Development. 115

E.   Environment Factors. 116

1.      Light. 116

2.      Temperature. 117

3.      Water supply. 118

4.      Nutrition. 118

5.      Gases. 118

F.   Application of Growth and Development. 119

1.      Fruits and seeds. 119

2.      Flowering. 119

3.      Dormancy. 119

4.      Leaf abscission. 120

XI.     PLANT MOVEMENT.. 121

A.  Concepts. 122

1.      Physical Movements. 122

2.      Vital Movements. 123

3.      Autonomous: Protoplasmic Streaming. 123

4.      Paratonic movements. 124

5.      Movements of Curvature. 125

a.  Autonomic Growth Movements: 125

b.  Photonasty. 127

c.  Chemonasty. 127

d.  Thermonasty: 129

e.  Seismonasty. 129

6.      Paratonic Tropic Movements. 131

a.  Phototropism.. 131

b.  Geotropism.. 132

c.  Chemotropism.. 133

d.  Hydrotropism.. 133

e.  Thigmotropism.. 133

XII.    FOTOPERIODISME AND VERNALIZATION.. 135

A.  Fotoperiodisme. 135

B.  Induction Fotoperiodisme. 137

C.  Vernalisasi 138

1.      Lies Vernalisasi 139

2.      Loss Vernalisasi 140

3.      Vernalisasi interaction with other factors. 141

4.      Organ Recipient Stimulation Vernalisasi 141

XIII.                                                                                                                            DORMANCE.. 143

A.  The Concept of Dormancy. 143

B.  Causes of Dormancy. 144

1.      Environmental Factors. 144

2.      Abscisic Acid.. 145

C.  A Classification of Seed Dormancy. 146

1.      Morphological Dormancy. 147

2.      Physical Dormancy. 147

3.      Physiological Dormancy. 147

4.      Dormancy and Seed Size. 152

5.      The Function of Seed Dormancy. 154

6.      Defining Dormancy. 156

7.      Effects of Parental Environment on Dormancy. 157

XIV. SENESCENCE.. 159

A.  Pattern of Aging and Death. 159

B.  Metabolic Aspects of Sensescence. 160

C.  Nutritional Competition in Senescence. 160

D.  Effects of Growth Factors. 161

E.   Causes of Senescence. 162

 

 

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